I figured this would help me remember these better, so here goes. These are the meethaq that Allah took with the Children of Israel in Surah Al Baqarah Juz 1, in the order that they come chronologically in the surah. All the وَ إذ اخَذنَا مِيثَاق…
- The Mount Toor was raised above them and this was how the covenant was taken with them. ‘Remember what is in it so that you may become of the righteous’. Taqwa is goal.
And [recall] when We took your covenant, [O Children of Israel, to abide by the Torah] and We raised over you the mount, [saying], “Take what We have given you with determination and remember what is in it that perhaps you may become righteous.” [Al Baqarah 2:63]
- A covenant taken with the Children of Israel, for them to worship only Allah, do ihsan to two parents, close relatives, the orphans, and needy and to utter good words to people, to establish prayers, give zakat. This is mentioned after mention of respective recompense of Hellfire and Paradise, 2 ayaat before. This ayah comes at the end of the page.
And [recall] when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], “Do not worship except Allah ; and to parents do good and to relatives, orphans, and the needy. And speak to people good [words] and establish prayer and give zakah.” Then you turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing. [2:83]
- This covenant concerns them not killing each other nor expelling each other from their homes. They affirmed and witnessed this covenant. After this, their treachery of this covenant is mentioned. This ayah comes at the beginning of the next page from the previous covenant.
And [recall] when We took your covenant, [saying], “Do not shed each other’s blood or evict one another from your homes.” Then you acknowledged [this] while you were witnessing.[2:84]
- This covenant emphasizes that they were supposed to listen and obey, but they didn’t. Their hearts are submerged in the love of the calf. This ayah comes at the end of the page.
And [recall] when We took your covenant and raised over you the mount, [saying], “Take what We have given you with determination and listen.” They said [instead], “We hear and disobey.” And their hearts absorbed [the worship of] the calf because of their disbelief. Say, “How wretched is that which your faith enjoins upon you, if you should be believers.” [2:93]