Tafseer Maryam Day 24 Ayat 96-98

  • Allah ends surah talking about people who will be protected from what is mentioned previously

 

Ayat 96
19:96
Sahih International

Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – the Most Merciful will appoint for them affection.

  • amaanu – they believed
  • wa ‘amilu saalihat – they did good deeds
  • they didn’t just say they believed but they backed it up
  • it’s letting us know that this protection from Allah
  • in Ayat 97, Allah dispelled this notion of romanticized notion of intercession
  • there will be people who will be in good graces of Allah but they will be people who believed
  • iman is root, foundation and these people had that iman, conviction
  • and then they backed up, confirm their iman
  • they did good actions and good deeds
  • that is backing up claim of “I believe”
  • for us, the 5 daily prayer is faith manifested
  • when you take a break from whatever you’re doing 5 times a day it’s practical, it shows, I’m living it, not just claiming it but living it
  • the promise of Allah is upon iman and ‘amalu saalih
  • this is states all throughout the Quran
  • in surah asr – culmination of this topic – that all humanity is in ruin and loss except people of iman and ‘amalu saalih
  • one of Quranic eloquence is that, at the same time when it mentions doing good deeds, it mentions saalihat
  • that is an adjective
  • the noun that the adjective is describing is al a’maal
  • it’s done to let the noun become the embodiment of the adjective
  • when you say ‘nice house’ versus ‘nice’, you’re identifying that house to be a symbol or embodiment of ‘nice’
  • when noun is omitted, we would refer back to see what is being described by adjective
  • when we look back we see it’s al-a’maal
  • that is broken plural (jam’ ul-mukassar/takseer)
  • whenever you have sifat for broken plural, the adjective would be singular feminine
  • that would have been al a’maal ass saalihaah
  • here you have the feminine plural stated
  • feminine plural is permissible
  • both variations are permissible in grammar
  • different one chosen to emphasize something differnt
  • in classical Arabic when you bring the feminine plural adjective, that’s actually done very interestingly
  • the norm is to use singular feminine
  • abnormal is to bring the plural feminine
  • whenever you do something abnormal in grammar that immediately puts a red flag
  • like someone walking into masjid with a cape on
  • abnormality catches your attention
  • point that is made here :- it’s saying that it’s plural but it’s very few in number
  • it’s kind of like you put a footnote that says “it doesn’t take a whole lot’
  • that the people who didn’t accomplish a lot but they try their best and maybe accomplish very little
  • that’s all it takes
  • for such people,

sayaj’alu lahumu arrahmaan wudda– very sooon Ar Rahmaan would reserve for them wuddan (unconditional, unpaalleled love)

  • wadud comes from same root that wudd comes toot
  • wadood – one whose love can’t be matched by anyone/anything
  • people who believe and try to do their best and do a few good deeds along the way, Allah will very soon make for them unconditional love
  • where will this love come from? not specified in ayah
  • it’s in common form, to it’s open ended
  • it means Allah will love them unconditionally
  • above and beyon everything else first and foremost they will receive love of Allah
  • Prophet saw is being told this in his 5th year of prophethood “Do what you’re doing, you will receive love the like of never has been seen before:
  • israa miraaj is manifestation of that love
  • he received such honor and dignity and love from Allah that the he receives such nearness to Allah that no other creation of Allah have received
  • not even angels receive that
  • when Jibril reach that boundary at sidratul muntahaa, he told Prophet saw “Between me and Allah, there are 70,000 barriers of noor, and if I were to go even near them  I would catch on fire and literally disintegrate ..but you have been given the honor and distinction to go beyond this point.
  • in surah Najm
  • 53:8
  • 53:8
    Sahih International

    Then he approached and descended

    53:9
  • 53:9
    Sahih International

    And was at a distance of two bow lengths or nearer.

  • this is  huge point of contention and discussion :- ‘two bow lengths or nearer’
  • but understand it from what Allah is saying here
  • ti is explaining what a private intimate moment it is between Allah and Prophet saw
  • an intimate moment you usually want to keep it to yourself, private
  • the love these people will receive is the love of Allah
  • hadith when Allah tells Jibril that He loves this person so love him etc…so much so that in the end everything and everyone loves this person
  • Muhammad saw had such acceptance to all creation of Allah
  • Prophet saw would lean against tree stump when giving khutbah and when he (saw) moved away the tree stump cried
  • animals would come to Prophet saw for love
  • Prophet saw was making wudhu from a bowl of water, a random cat walks up to Prophet saw, he (saw) tipped the bowl of water to let the cat drink and left and Prophet saw would continue making wudhu
  • clouds would provide shade over his head, trees would say salam, rocks would say salam to Prophet saw
  • everyone and everything was drawn to Prophet saw
  • that same love is provided to those who have iman and ‘amalu saalih
  • this is the final time Ar Rahman mentioned in this surah
  • Ar rahmaan mentioned here the most in a surah here than in any other surah
  • classical mufasirron out of affection they would refer to this surah as surah of rahmah
  • what can we reflect then?
  • we see great manifestation of Allah’s mercy throughout surah
  • from Zakariya a.s. being given a child at old age, to Maryam being taken care of by Allah, to Isa a.s. being born through miracle and being given a mother like Maryam, and Ibrahim struggling in his relationship with father but Allah blessed him with a household of prophets, Ishaq and Yaqoub and Ismail his family, and how Allah is making angels apologize to Prophet saw, etc
  • it began by mentioned Allah’s mercy and ends here by mentioning Allah’s mercy
  • at same time, even when it’s reprimanding people who did shirk with Allah, even there it mentions attribute of Rahmaan to remind us of important lesson
  • yes Allah is Ar rahman but some people deluded themselves on trhis basis and they took things too far
  • Christians , it was that same delusion to Allah’s mercy that led them astray
  • that His ‘son’ was sacrificed as expiation for the sins
  • so this is again that over indulgence into Allah being Ar Rahman
  • even the Jews while not mentioned specifically but mentioned in other place in Quran :- We won’t be tested by fire except or a few days, We are the children of God and we are His beloved ones
  • even mushrikoon -: we want the mercy of Alah but we are so much in awe and mercy that we don’t find ourselves worthy of approaching Allah directly and that’s why we have these representatives and dignitaries on our behalf
  • not only right after, but in middle of passage talking about horrific punishment, Allah mentions Ar Rahmaan
  • punishment and Ar rahman one either side in same sentence. how is that?
  • it is from mercy of Allah that He mentions His punishment
  • if it’s left a mystery – “Take care of this or else!”
  • what’s ‘or else’? that invites just even more disobedience and boldness and curiosity
  • Allah doesn’t left us to become prey to our own human weaknesses
  • so it’s completely laid out
  • like a test given to you, you given a week to study, an hour before test, it’s collected from you and then given back to you to complete
  • if you can’t do well you have no one to blame but yourself
  • if you still end up in fire it’s not due to shortage of Allah’s mercy
  • in surah Qalam: ayat 35
  • 68:35
    Sahih International

    Then will We treat the Muslims like the criminals?

  • that would be zdhulm to treat them the same because the consequences is explicitly laid out and one person tries hard and the other doesn’t, it’s only fair to give what they each deserve
  • notice that Allah takes the responsibility of providing love upon Himself
  • sayaj’alu – verb
  • Ar rahmaan = the doer
  • responsibility of human being is to believe and do good deeds
  • as for love and acceptance, leave that to Allah
  • when human takes it upon himself to achieve love and acceptance it usually leads to spiritual and healthy compromise
  • mentioned in surah qalam and numerous aahdeeth
  • it’s called mudaaahanah
  • they want you to compromise because they’re more than willing to compromise
  • surah qalam was the 2nd surah revealed
  • at that point Prophet saw was warned this
  • don’t become someone who is so easily compromised in his deen
  • sahabah would say that someone who no body ever complains about (some who tells people what they want to hear) is someone who compromises his religion
  • path to universal love and acceptance is that a person does what is right, and that times people might not like it but that person keeps doing what he has to do and at that point that blessing of universal love and acceptance comes from Allah
  • the 1st ad foremost thing is iman and amalu saaliih and as reward Allah will give universal love and acceptance when it’s best for the person
  • leave Ar rahman’s job for Him and we do our job
  • end and conclusion of surah are often times very comprehensive

it’s 3 things here:

  • who are people who will be blessed by Allah, how and why they are blessed?
  • they are ones who do ‘amalu saalih, universal love and acceptance from Allah down to other creations of Allah

 

Ayat 97
19:97
Sahih International

So, [O Muhammad], We have only made Qur’an easy in the Arabic language that you may give good tidings thereby to the righteous and warn thereby a hostile people.

  • fainnala yassarnaahu – We have facilitated it for you
  • hu (it) – refers to Quran – unanimous opinion
  • even though Quran not mentioned anywhere previously, this is from balaghah
  • it’s so clear and undeniable that it’s talking about the Quran
  • this is dhameer(pronoun) without a word that it is explicitly referred to but it is clear that it is being pointed to
  • tayseer often translated as ‘to make something easy’
  • it’s not an appropriate rtanslation
  • because it can start to undermine the profoundness of the Quran
  • as Muslims we understand in what sense it is simple but it doesn’t undermine the fact that it still requires work, a lot of work
  • you can put in 10 months of time and sometimes sit in front of ayah and you don’t even know where to start from
  • active teaching and active preaching is actually just advanced study, we like to glorify it but actually it’s just advanced study
  • Fatara versus khalaqa
  • Ibn Abbas says that years after Prophet saw passed away he still wasn’t sure about the differnce
  • he was traveling through bedouin tribe and that was when he discovered the detailed difference between them
  • he was still on that journey of learning
  • Quran in a way is simplified for us in good sense, but be careful because you don’t want to create misundestanding
  • it still requires time, patience, work from a person
  • so a more appropriate translation – We have facilitate it for you
  • we have given you faculties that will allow you to engage with it

bilisaanika

  • the primary means by which We have facilitated it for you is by your tongue
  • it means language, language that Prophet saw is addressing
  • but lisaan is more than just language, but the lingo of the people, level of discourse that people can understand, relevance
  • we need to understand about the Quran
  • to properly engage with Quran we first have to grasp Arabic
  • a great amount of misunderstanding of Islam, Quran is mostly due to translation Muslims have done
  • at same time we need to understand Quran in practical and relevant ways and explain it in a way people understand
  • never think that it makes you sound dumb to explain it simply to people in a way they understand
  • Prophet saw used to use language that was easy, practical, he would repeat himself when he would talk
  • sometimes up to 3 times he would repeat himself
  • he’s not concerned in trying to sound fancy – that’s not an accomplishment
  • an accomplishment is helping someone understand what Allah is saying
  • why has it been facilitated?

litubashiruka bihi lmuttaqeen – so you can inpisre by means of it, good righteous people

  • so you can further lift their spirits, reinforce what they’re already doing

watunzhira bihi qaumu ludda – and you can warn by it peope who are extremely argumentative

  • aladdul khisam – someone who is very argumentative, relishes a fight, argument they feed of off it
  • people who have open heart, you motivate them
  • and when that doesn’t work and you find out they are combative and argumentative then at that point you warn them through Quran
  • first Allah talks about motivating people, then He talks about warning people
  • this surah is at climax
  • Allah talks about bad people who is being punished in hellfire
  • but them Allah emphasizes to prophet saw that method of dawah is still the same, motivate them and if that doesn’t work, warn them
  • warning is not to scare but out of well wishing
  • it’s a compassionate reminder
  • tabsheer and then inzhaar
  • oftentimes when things like this in Quran we think that that is a higher standard and that we are weaker and our situation are differnt
  • people have non stop opposed and oppressed Prophet saw for 20 years
  • Khalid Ibn Walid was solely responsible for killing of many Muslims in battle of Uhud
  • when Prophet saw came across his brother Waleed Ibn Waleed, 18 years, Prophet saw asked “How is Khalid?” sincerely
  • even Waleed was surprised why he (saw) would be asking about Khalid
  • “why would you ask about him?”
  • “I’ve always admired his intelligence.”
  • Waleed at this time had even written off his brother as having no more hope to become Muslim
  • but he was so inspired by Prophet saw’s love and sincerity
  • and he wrote a letter to Khalid telling him of what Prophet saw said and Khalid became Muslim
  • for the past 18 years Khalid’s mission was to make the Prophet saw’s life miserable by killing the Muslims
  • another sahabah, Abu Sufyan persecuted him so badly that even Khalid went to Abu Sufyan and told him to back off and even to the point that the way Abu Sufyan treated that sahabah made Khalid want to become Muslim. He recalled this thought later on when he became Muslim
  • it was the Prophet saw’s love that became the turning point
  • Ikrimah Ibn Abu Jahl was so hostile and even fought alongside his father against Muslims. After father killed in Badr he kept fighting against Muslims
  • when prophet saw came to Makkah on conquest of Makkah, he fled,
  • his wife came to Prophet saw saying Ikrimah ran thinking Prophet saw had ill will towards him
  • Prophet saw said no, you can bring him back and I won’t give him any trouble
  • she went and brought him back from the port, he was about to board a ship
  • when Prophet saw heard he’s back, he turned to a sahabah and told them to not talk bad about Abu Jahl, Ikrimah’s father
  • Ikrimah died as shaheed fighting on behalf of Islam
  • Umar and another Sahabah were about to pounce Abu Sufyan when he came into tent of Prophet saw
  • Prophet saw told them to relax and back off
  • “He’s a leader of his people, wheres your respect?” Have a seat. What would you like to talk about?”
  • this is his arch enemy, imagine that
  • Abu Sufyan asked for protection for his people and family and prophet saw gave it
  • Hind, wife of Abu Sufyan who had paid Wahshi to kill Hamzah, Prophet saw welcomes her
  • she accepts Islam and becomes Hind r.a.
  • Wahshi, Prophet saw wrote letter after letter inviting him to Islam
  • when he came to Prophet saw, he looks at Wahshi and remembers his uncle and starts to cry and tells him, it makes him remember his uncle and that he’s still human being, he can’t help it
  • the sequence is very important
  • didn’t Prophet saw also came after some people? pray against them? Punish them?
  • Didn’t Nuh a.s. asked Allah to destroy his people?
  • Yes, but look at the 20+ years of love that he (saw) extended to these people
  • look at the key people among his enemies and how he (saw) has embraced them
  • when we have come to that standard then we can come to dooming and condemning people
  • but we need to come to first step -> tabsheer = motivating people
  • basheeran wa nazheera – not just in regards to prophet saw
  • majority of mufasiroon says in surah fussilat that it talks about Quran, Quran is first basheer and then nazheer
  • bi hi – using the Quran, motivate and warn using Quran
  • Quran is primary vehicle of dawah whether in basheer or nazheer state
  • tragedy in our community – our dawah is based on everything other than Quran
  • we need to explain the Quran to people, talk through the Quran to people
  • this is being emphasized to the Prophet saw, that the Quran needs to be the primary vehicle of dawah
  • Taha 113 –
  • 20:113
    Sahih International

    And thus We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an and have diversified therein the warnings that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance.

Ayat 98
19:98
Sahih International

And how many have We destroyed before them of generations? Do you perceive of them anyone or hear from them a sound?

  • surah is concluding by mentioning 3 key things
  • who, why, how are the people blessed by Allah?
  • ayat 97 reaffirming to Prophet saw of his convictions, this is what has been provided to you, this is why it has been provided, don’t worry, keep doing your job, We know who the argumentative people are and We will take care of them
  • Allah ended previous ayat with qawmun ludda (argumentative people)
  • now in this ayah, Allah repeats what has been mentioned before also in this surah

hal tuhissu minhum min ahadin – do you even sense, feel, know anything about those people that remains

  • do you see, know anything about them?
  • have you come to realize or know anything about them?
  • that type of question means – do you know anything about them?
  • No, and that is the whole point
  • they were wiped clean off the face of the earth
  • if Quran hadn’t mentioned we wouldn’t even have known about them
  • al ajdaath– surah yasin and other surah
  • plura of jadath
  • jadath – forgotten grave
  • aw tasma’u lahum rikzan – or do you hear even a light sound from them
  • rikz – a very very light sound
  • some lexicon mention that rikz used in classical Arabic to talk about the buzzing of a bee
  • what we call the crickets chirping, you don’t even hear it, nothing
  • it’s as if they didn’t even exist
  • Allah telling Prophet saw to keep doing their job, and that Allah will take care of those argumentative ones and that Allah has dealt with many people like that that no one even knows about them

Recap

  • important to do a recap of the whole surah especially in intense study like this
  • the next session will be solely to structure, recap, coherence of this surah
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