Tafseer Maryam Day 20 Ayat 65-73

Recap

  • Prophet saw suffered from the opposition and his high point is when he is visited by Jibril and so he asks Jibril why he doesn’t visit more often
  • Jibril says it’s not up to them but it’s up to Allah
  • that it would be an honor for the angels to visit Prophet saw but it’s not up to them
  • then angels elaborate saying that Allah is the sole one in charge, everything under command and authority of Allah and nothing is outside grasp and authority of Allah
  • even though we are angels, we ourselves can’t move outside the confines of command and hukm of Allah
  • angels literally apologizing and excusing themselves to Prophet saw
  • this is also a refutation of false beliefs of mushrikoon who sees angels as daughters of Allah
  • when they’re reprimanded in their worship by Prophet saw, the mushrikoon of Makkah would that these idols are manifestations of the angels Prophet saw talks about and that they will intercede for them
  • Allah knows what’s going on with Prophet saw and that He’s looking out for him (saw)

Ayat 65

19:65
Sahih International

Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them – so worship Him and have patience for His worship. Do you know of any similarity to Him?”

  • this ayah further elaborates on this idea
  • that Allah doesn’t forget you
  • rabb not only one who creates but one who sustains, feeds, guides
  • He’s maintaining everything singlehandedly
  • giving that perspective that He hasn’t forgotten because He’s maintaining everything
  • now it’s understandable
  • “we understand how you feel distraught, frustrated with the people, but the proper course of action of those times is ..”

fa’budhu – so worship Him

  • ibadah comes from same root as word slave
  • not just worship but to dedicate yourself to Him
  • the true manifestation of servitude is through worship
  • If I just say I’m a slave of Allah but I don’t worship Him it would remain empty words
  • when I stand and worship Allah how and when He wants me to then that is backing the claim

wasTabir

  • iStabara – exagerrated form of word sabr
  • be steadfast

li ‘ibadatihi – for His worship

  • Prophet saw dealing with difficulty and adversity, Allah telling him (saw) here that the recourse is to worship Him
  • in another place in Quran Allah says
  • 15:97
    Sahih International

    And We already know that your breast is constrained by what they say.

    15:98
    15:98
    Sahih International

    So exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord and be of those who prostrate [to Him].

    15:99
    15:99
    Sahih International

    And worship your Lord until there comes to you the certainty (death).

  • stick to ibadah and remembrance of Allah
  • that is very important
  • we need to turn salah from a ritual form of worship into a resource/tool source of peace and tranquility and relieving pain and suffering and difficulty
  • salah needs to have a more practical place in our lives
  • when I deal with adversity I can turn towards qiblah and pray and discuss my issues with my Allah
  • never make mistake that we only turn to Allah in those moments of difficulties but be consistent
  • when you are regular in making dua and when turning to Allah in times of difficulties it’s as if your voice has become familiar and so when you have problem and turn to Allah, it’s like you are that familiar person and the level of responsiveness is much greater
  • it’s because you have invested in a relationship with Allah
  • Prophet saw here being told literally
  • prepositions have ability to alter meaning of certain words
  • going to vs. going from
  • isTibaar – very very patient
  • when follow by lam, many scholars of tafseer and grammar says this lam changes the meaning to ‘wait for something’ -> wait patiently for something
  • so Allah is saying to Prophet saw to not just sit there and wait in anticipation for divine revelation but that you have an excellent outlet to communicate with Allah and that is prayer
  • quotes of scholars – the salah is like the mi’raaj of the believer – like the tool to communicate with Allah for the believer like Prophet saw did at the Mi’raaj
  • night of israa and mi’raaj happened at  a moment in Prophet saw’s life where he suffered  personal tragedies
  • he lost his wife of 25 years
  • like his soulmate, love of one’s life, mother of your children
  • when message came she was the strongest of his supporters, on the hardest days she would be the one to hold his hand and give him strength
  • imagine what a personal tragedy that was to lose her
  • then 3 months or so after that, Prophet saw lost his uncle, not just an uncle but the man who raised him
  • Prophet’s saw tragedy was being exploited at that time by the mushrikoon
  • “Look at this man, he’s so miserable, everybody around him is dying. You follow a man like this?!”
  • So Allah took him (saw) on the night journey to Jerusalem and then to heavens and there Allah granted him (saw) gift of salah as a means of “this will be an outlet for you when you go through any adversity”
  • that is the significance of the night of israa miraaj
  • we’re given on that day the means to communicate with Allah in times of adversities
  • we have to realize that Allah is there for us
  • all we need to do is offer our prayer and we are directly dialoguing with Allah
  • hadith qudsi – when we stand up and recite al fatihah in salah it’s a two way dialogue
  • we need to avail of this opoprtunity
  • Prophet saw here is being reminded of the same thing, anticipate the time of the prayer
  • “when would I be able to engage in dialogue with my Allah..”

hal ta’lamu lahu samiyyan – do you know anyone who is equal to Allah?

  • this is rhetorical
  • there is nothing that compares to Allah therefore why wouldn’t you want to have a relationship with Allah
  • people pride themselves in having relationship with unique people
  • who is more unique than Allah
  • so pride yourself in your personal relationship with Allah

Ayat 66

19:66
Sahih International

And the disbeliever says, “When I have died, am I going to be brought forth alive?”

  • this is where the refutation and reprimand upon those people who deny Allah and messenger saw and life after death

wa yaqoolul insaan – the human being he says

  • look at tone
  • the human being – doesn’t implicate all human beings
  • because we believers also fall under this category but we don’t say what they are going to say
  • it’s like when you reprimand someone but you don’t even want to give them any recognition
  • like saying “Some people/students do this”
  • it’s also a sign of displeasure
  • it’s as if Allah is quoting this bad people who say these horrible things
  • quoting them is like saying “Can you imagine the gall and audacity of these people?”

a izha maa mittu lasawfa ukhraju hayyan – that when I’m dead, that in the future I will be brought out of the ground alive

  • this is because mushrikoon still had that tradition of burying the dead
  • they’re mocking here, there is no intention here to seek of gain knowledge, they’re doing this to make a joke out of it, ridicule
  • “Let me get this straight, what you’re saying is after I’m dead, I will be brought out of the ground living?! Come on!”

Ayat 67

19:67
Sahih International

Does man not remember that We created him before, while he was nothing?

  • so this human being who says this
  • again we have that alluding to that person without acknowledging them

awalaa yazhkurul insaanu – does he not remember, this human being

anna khalaqnaahu min qablu – that We created him before

wa lam yaku shay”an – he was nothing

  • “When We created him the first time and he was nothing, out of nothingnesss..”
  • isn’t it actually easier to create something the second time?
  • so if this short visioned human being would go back and reflect, he would realize it wouldn’t be difficult for Us to bring him back alive
  • wa lam yaku shay”an
  • permissible within sarf to drop noon at the end
  • grammatically speaking both with noon and without noon is ok
  • it’s used to give a visual to that meaning
  • noon omitted here to say/show he was nothing to begin
  • he didn’t exist like the noon no longer exists

Ayat 68

19:68
Sahih International

So by your Lord, We will surely gather them and the devils; then We will bring them to be present around Hell upon their knees.

  • fawarabbika -therefore by your Lord
  • this is an oath
  • this is Allah swearing by Himself as rabb
  • whatever is taken oath by shows the importance and lends strength to the oath
  • object of oath ties into overall message of ayah as well
  • what’s being argued here is that these people don’t believe in hereafter
  • if they truly accept Allah has rabb they wouldn’t find no hesitation that Allah can recreate them
  • lanahshurannahum – surely We will gather all of them together
  • hashr – gathering all the people from different places/times/situation all at one time for one purpose
  • lam at beginning and noon with shaddah – a very heavy form of emphasis, double emphasis
  • washayaateen – and the devils/mischief makers

What’s meant here by mentioning shayaateen ?

  • reprimanding them
  • implicating those forces that motivate these people, who keep egging these people on :-
  1. first is jinn, shaytaan as we know it, the one that whispers, leads the human away from doing good and towards bad and wrong
  2. second, there are even troublemakers that are at level of being shayateen but they are human beings, they do the job of shayaateen
  • this mentioned in Surah Fussilat
  • 41:29
  • 41:29
    Sahih International

    And those who disbelieved will [then] say, “Our Lord, show us those who misled us of the jinn and men [so] we may put them under our feet that they will be among the lowest.”

    thumma lanuhdhirannahum
  • we’re going to see repetition of word thumma in these few ayat
  • thumma = then afterwards
  • it shows that a certain amount of time has transpired
  • Allah is saying that “We will gather them all together and then just leave them there”
  • one of most horrible torments is when these people will be gathered together in field of al hashr and literally made to just stand there
  • we know this is 50,000 years long
  • hadith tells us that the sun will literally be a mile above their heads and they will drown in their sweat
  • surah haqqah – they will be miserable that they wish they could just die, too much to bear to just stand there
  • 69:27
  • 69:27
    Sahih International

    I wish my death had been the decisive one.

lanuhdhirannahum – We will present them [ has dual enphasis – this will definitely happen]

  • the ayah that follows is very strong in their tone
  • it serves as a wake up call
  • the deeper someone is asleep the louder of an alarm they require
  • being immersed in shirk can insulate a person so much from the truth that they literally need that alarm clock with the bell on it
  • this is why the tone is so strong here
  • they will be shackled and chained, dragged and presented

h7awla jahannama – around the fire of hell

  • jahannam – will be like a hungry animal, beast
  • zafeerun wa shaheequn – like a wild animal a hungry beast, it inhales and exhales very loudly, pants loudly
  • like that hungry beast and animal when you feed it it wants more
  • jahannam wants to be fed
  • not just fuel which will be people and stones
  • it will be asked halimta la”ti (are you full?) and jahnnam will say “Bring it on.”
  • jithiyyan
  • jatha yajthu – refers to falling down on one’s knees
  • when you’re standing up on your knees
  • imagine the scene :- when somebody made to stand up on their knees and hands tied behind their back, it’s usually someone who is convicted of a crime, tortured, about to be executed
  • it’s punishment form
  • what a scary position to be in

Ayat 69

19:69
Sahih International

Then We will surely extract from every sect those of them who were worst against the Most Merciful in insolence.

  • thumma – then
  • these people will literally be left there tied up on their knees surrounding fire of hell feeling like eternity
  • imagine being in that situation, looking at what you’re going to be thrown into, and hell is exhaling and inhaling, breathing out, burning their faces ofdf and you’re left there like that

lananzi’anna – and We will bring out

  • naza’a – to extract something from inside of something
  • individuals will be extracted for very extra special punishment

min kulli sh’atin – from each group

  • shi’atun – in Quranic language refers to group that rallies together for their cause
  • in this case – opposition of Prophets saw, denial of Allah, hereafter
  • ayyuhum – whosoever among them

ashaddu ala rahmaani ‘itiyya

  • ‘itiyyan – to cross all lines and boundaries
  • whosoever was the most severe in crossing all lines of obedience and decency in dealing with Allah
  • it refers to Allah as Ar Rahmaan, repeated throughout surah and emphasized again
  • He is ar Rahman He gave them so many opportunities
  • part of what deluded these people was how good their condition was in this dunya
  • how did they repay the favor? by disbelieving in Him

Ayat 70

19:70
Sahih International

Then, surely it is We who are most knowing of those most worthy of burning therein.

  • thumma
  • we have another delay
  • imagine the plight of those who are extracted
  • they’re pulled aside and made to sit
  • imagine the level of anxiety
  • like being pulled aside at the airport when you haven’t done anything wrong, even then there is that level of anxiety
  • these people they have done wrong, they’re separated and then told to sit tight and just wait
  • “We’ll come get you when we need you”
  • emotional torment
  • left for what will feel like eternity
  • after all that time, that emotional torment

lanahnu a’lamu bilazheena hum awla bihaa siliyya

  • now they’re told why they were separated
  • they were the most deserving in this punishment
  • Siliyyan – in classical Arabic refers to how you hold something that you barbeque like a marshmallow that you roast over direct fire
  • they’ll be tied up, inserted into fire and literally be roasted there

Ayat 71

19:71
Sahih International

And there is none of you except he will come to it. This is upon your Lord an inevitability decreed.

  • it’s such a scary thing to visualize
  • for some people that makes them skeptical
  • that sounds too crazy, wild

wa in minkum illa wariduuhaa

  • in here is for negation
  • in as negation has emphasis built in to it
  • all through this passage we see emphasis
  • there is not a single one of you except that he will have to go to the fire of hell
  • that is specifically to the mushrikoon
  • some mufasiroon mention based on ayat that follow that this is addressing the humanity, both good and bad
  • that every single one of you whether you’re going in it or not, will have to approach it
  • waarid comes from wurood
  • warada – describing Musa a.s.
  • walamma warada – when he approached the water of people of Madyan
  • doesn’t mean entering but just approaching it
  • even good people on their way to Jannah will have to approach pass by fire of hell
  • hadith (authentic) – there will be a bridge over the fire of hell, everyone will pass over that bridge
  • narration in Tirmdhi – bridge of siraat is thinner than a hair but sharper than a sword
  • as these people pass over the bridge, some of these people depending on their iman, relationship with Allah, some will pass over in blink of an eye, some like lightning, some like blowing breeze, some will split their foot and fall into fire of hell
  • purpose of that :-
  • you sometimes don’t know how good you got until you see how bad other people got it
  • these people on way to Jannah will see how bad the people of Jahannam have it and that will make them relish Jannah that much more
  • hadith that talks about this fact
  • in musnad Imam Ahmad – how people who suffered a lot in dunya are dipped into paradise, and they will be asked how their dunya was  and they said , oh nothing, and then there will be people who had luxury in dunya and dipped in hellfire for a second, and asked how was dunya, and he said miserable
  • just seeing for an instant will change a person’s entire perspective

kaana ‘alaa rabika hatmam maqdhiyyan – this is fixed upon your Lord

  • hatm – decision that is fixed and final
  • maqdhiyyan – decision that is enforced
  • that is a way of saying your Lord has fixed this decision and it will be enforced
  • He has fixed it upon Himself

Ayat 72

19:72
Sahih International

Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees.

  • thumma
  • even this entire situation
  • 1st scenario where people of hell flung into hellfire – that moment will last for what seem like eternity
  • picked up and flung face first in helfire
  • even crossing of bridge of sirat will seem like eternity
  • after that entire scene transpires

nunajjilazheena taqaww – we will save those who live a life of god-consciousness

  • nunajji – from tanjia
  • from root word najaat
  • in this verb form, bab taf’eel, it exaggerates the meaning
  • “We will completely save them they will not in the least bit will they be affected by the horrible condition of fire of hell.”
  • whenever we read passages like these that are so heavy, scary, explicit in torment of hellfire there is always that thing mentioned at end of the passage
  • as scary as that is, the way to save yourself is very easy
  • Allah stated it in 3 words – nunnajji allazheena ittaqaw
  • 3 word solution – We will save those who ittaqaw (live a life of God consciousness)
  • think of what would please Allah right now whenever we do anything
  • God consciousness is the key, root
  • taqwa is that foundation

wa nazharu zdhaalimeena feeha jithiyya – but We will leave the people who did wrong in it

  • they wronged themselves, did this to themselves
  • again jithiyyan
  • Allah says We will drop them in hell like that in that same position, tied up like prisoners, and just going to leave them for all of eternity

Ayat 73

19:73
Sahih International

And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who disbelieve say to those who believe, “Which of [our] two parties is best in position and best in association?”

  • how do things get to bad that this happens ? Allah says it here
  • whether referring to verse of Quran or signs around us
  • wa izhaa tutlaa ayaatunaa bayyinatin – whenever Our signs/Quran is recited upon them very very clearly
  • wallalazheena kafaroo lillazheena amaanoo
  • go back to ayat 58 – when talking about prophets and their followers, it is said that when the ayat of Ar Rahman recited upon them, they fall into sujud before Allah and they cry and weep before Allah, overwhelmed by greatness and gratitude over Allah
  • 19:58
    Sahih International

    Those were the ones upon whom Allah bestowed favor from among the prophets of the descendants of Adam and of those We carried [in the ship] with Noah, and of the descendants of Abraham and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Merciful were recited to them, they fell in prostration and weeping.

  • but here :-
  • aayul fariqayni

fariqayni – two groups

  • “us disbelievers versus y’all believers”

khayrun maqaaman  – is better in their standing

  • in status in society

wa ahsanu nadiyyan – and which is in better company

  • nadiyyan from nadwah
  • nadwah – company of elite people, like city hall where important decisions made
  • y’all believers are lowly people, slaves and poor people, you’re oppressed, minority, we are the majority, rich, influential and what yuo’re saying is that you will be in better situation and that when yu orecite this ayah you’re saying we need to listen to you. We’re in better situation here, we’re living it up. We look like we’re at better end of the deal. Your god who has blessed us here, would bless us more there!
  • they go on offensive
  • and Allah says

wa kam ahlakna qablahum min qarn – and how many have We destroyed from entire generations of people

hum ahsanu athaatha wari”yan – they were better off than these people are

  • athathan – refers to personal assets, amenities that a person has
  • ri”yan from ru”yah –
  • had more glitz and glamor than they do (bling bling)
  • We destroyed them so much so that no sign of them remains today
  • people of Thamud, ‘Aad, Madyan, firawn and his people – wiped clean off the face of this earth
  • these people are arrogant thinking they’re living it up here and they think they’re entitled for more in hereafter
  • Allah is dismissing them here, “What makes these people feel entitled to talk in this way?”

Link to video series on MM

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