Tafseer Maryam Day 14 Ayat 39-41

  • from ayat 34, we started reading “That is story of Isa a.s.”
  • “this is the absolute truth”
  • “this is the same truth these people are making a distortion and confusion”
  • It doesn’t befit Allah that He has a son and Allah is far above and beyond that
  • they’re so impressed by all the miracles of Isa a.s.
  • Allah is saying, it is impressive but if they should be impressed by anyone or anything, they should be impressed with Allah that He can do anything whenever whatever He wants
  • if you have some extra cords/paper/pens, something that isn’t very valuable, you throw it in a duffel bag/box and put it in a corner
  • but if you have diamonds, would you do the same? No
  • you would put it in a velvet lined box, a special case
  • the vessel of something amazing is dignified accordingly, it receives same respect of what is therein
  • Isa a.s. is a manifestation of the power of Allah
  • Maryam is a vessel which contains Isa a.s., she’s respected and honorable
  • we revere her but we have to realize that this comes from something else, Allah
  • you don’t thank the tree when you get the fruit, you thank Allah
  • same perspective
  • end conclusion for Isa a.s. would have been the same as the tree/fruit
  • they should have been in awe of Allah
  • kun fayakoon – be and it is – that’s all that is required on Allah’s part
  • then Isa a.s. saying that this Rabb we’re talking about is not just my Rabb but your rabb too
  • gratitude leads to fa’buduuhu (ubudiyyah)
  • dynamic of this relationship – I’m indebted to Allah because He gave me everything that I have, how could I not be grateful to Him
  • obedience is a side effect of gratitude
  • we find it consistent throughout the Quran that messengers would teach people to develop relationship with Allah
  • they didn’t teach that the only way the people can develop relationship with Allah is through them
  • if relationship with Allah is solely based on a human being, what will happen when that human being is gone?
  • that’s why Abu Bakr r.a. said,”Realize this that if you used to worship Muhammad, Muhammad is gone. But if you worship Allah, know that He is Hayy and Qayyum” at Prophet’s saw death
  • hazhaa sirat mustaqeem – this is the basis of our deen
  • it’s a tragedy that basis of our deen at our time is difference of opinions, minutia of fiqh, particular discussion of aqeedah
  • that if someone comes along and tell them otherwise the world falls apart
  • foundation of deen is my relationship with Allah
  • as long as you stick to that nothing can throw you off the straight path
  • but these people started to severely disagree and fight among themselves
  • then Allah saying How sad it is the condition of those people when they will testified against, made to stand on the great day
  • then Allah say, Look how well they can hear and see now, but too little too late now
  • the time and place that it matters is here and now but here and now, they are in clear error, completely buried in their own delusions

Ayat 39

19:39
Sahih International

And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and [yet], they are in [a state of] heedlessness, and they do not believe.

  • ok that’s the condition,
  • for example somebody gives a talk, this is wrong that is wrong
  • so what do we do?

wa anzhirhum – warn them

  • meaning of warning is not to scare but to warn out of love and concern and warn of something they are in imminent danger of
  • e.g. of someone looking up st sky about to walk into a ditch
  • you have to care about the person not to want him to fall in the ditch, and it is an imminent danger
  • surah furqan 25:27 – specific situation of people on that day
  • 25:27
    Sahih International

    And the Day the wrongdoer will bite on his hands [in regret] he will say, “Oh, I wish I had taken with the Messenger a way.

  • ya’addhu – to chew on something with molars
  • some of interpretations of this from sahabah and taabi’oon – they would gnaw off entire arms
  • that’s how severe the remorse, regrets
  • they hate themselves so much that they will gnaw off their arms
  • but Allah is saying there will be remorse and regret for everyone on that day, not just the disobedient
  • some people in Jannah will even regret every second they spent without remembering Allah in this world
  • because they look at the person at a higher level who is a little bit closer to Allah
  • “if I was a little bit smarter with my time, look at what I could have achieved”
  • the last person who will enter Jannah has 10 times the size of this world – this is the guy in the basement, picked last in the draft
  • imagine how the Jannah of some people will be like
  • this person would be like “Wow, I had no idea!”
  • Prophet saw said “Jannah of some people would be such that the roof of their paradise will be the ‘arsh of Allah”
  • these people will be that their blessings will be that whenever they want to look at Allah they only need to look up

izh qudhiyal amr – when everything is done

  • mufasiroon explain that there will be horrible physical torment, but what is worse is that emotional torment, they will hate themselves so much
  • miserable existence, no death no life
  • everyone will be told “That’s it, this is it”
  • hadith (sahih Muslim) – death will be brought in shape of lamb and will be slaughtered in front of everyone and Allah will announce to both people of hell and Jannah that this is it, no more death, then Prophet saw recited this ayah

wa hum fi ghaflatin

  • wau = wau haaliyah
  • even though that will be their situation then, now, they are in heedlessness!
  • ghaflah – when you don’t care about something, self-imposed obliviousness, “whatever”
  • the imagery here is fee
  • they are IN obliviousness
  • imagery in Arabic is like they are drowning in their own apathy, oblivion
  • that I don’t care attitude is so bad that they don’t care about anything and forget about how to care
  • this is talking about spiritual affair
  • this is what happens with people
  • nature of ghaflah : we need to make sure we don’t confuse ghaflah with anything admirable
  • we seek refuge with Allah from this apathy, negligence
  • one common example : when you’re sitting in lecture, khutbah,class as long as it’s a decent khutbah, lecture, scenario. Sometimes you doze off a little bit.
  • And people say “Oh sakinah brother, sakinah” because of the hadith of the Prophet saw says “whenever people gather together in one of houses of Allah, they remember Allah, they reciting book of Allah and studying, Sakinah descends upon them.”
  • Ibn Mas’ood who was a muqri and mu’allim of the sahabah, he was the Quran teacher and general ustaazh of generation of sahabah and tabi’oon
  • quotes of sahabah say that the knowledge of all the sahabah end on 2 people :Ali and Ibn Mas’ood
  • he used to teach people, common lectures for the common public, once a week
  • when people asked for more he said no, that the Prophet saw told him not to never make people tired of the deen
  • he noticed people dozing off , he said, “what’s going on with you?” some people said, “Sakinah, sakinah!” Ibn Mas’ood said “Sakinah is sleeping in the battlefield, sleeping in masjid, lessons, khutbah,dars, is ghaflah. That’s apathy because you’re not paying attention to how I can improve my life based on what’s being said”
  • we invest in lecture or khutbah based on ‘is there anything he is saying that I don’t already know’
  • but not on “what I don’t implement right now”
  • he can be talking about fact that you have to pray 5 times a day, what you should not be assessing is whether I have to pray 5 times a day or not but you should be assessing do I pray 5 times a day?

wa hum laa yu”minoon – their condition today is such that they not only believe right now but they will not believe

  • fi ghaflatin – they drowning in apathy
  • the verb after that, not only is it a verb, but it’s present/future tense verb
  • because of that apathy that if you fall prey to ghaflah it will lead you to disbelief and stunts your spiritual growth
  • these people are obviously disbelievers right now
  • but because they have become oblivious and apathetic, they will continue to remain in disbelief
  • their disbelief will renew itself over and over again
  • ghaflah is one of those things that you drown in, it block nur in heart, stunts your spiritual growth
  • first thing is to get out of that ghaflah
  • how?

1. zhikr needs to be revived, person needs to recommit self to zhikr

  • zhikr has many manifestations, it can be remembering Allah
  • but true actual zhikr = reflection
  • don’t just say subhanallah but think about what it means

2. other manifestation of zhikr = recitation of Quran

  • Quran is like a shield, cure for ghaflah
  • read, memorize, understand the Quran

3. establish prayer for the sake of My remembrance

  • prayer will literally drag you out of ghaflah, like a lifeline

Ayat 40

19:40
Sahih International

Indeed, it is We who will inherit the earth and whoever is on it, and to Us they will be returned.

  • inna nahnu – most definitely We and Only We
  • nahnu – independent pronoun for emphasis and exclusivity
  • narithu – we inherith
  • from wirth – to inherit
  • al ardh – the entire earth
  • wa man alayha – and anyone who is on the earth
  • this is Allah speaking in 1st person and plural
  • when Allah speak in plural, that should cause no theological crisis, it’s what is called the royal plural of the majestic We
  • when someone from a higher position speaks in tone or situation or circumstances where He is demonstrating not only His authority but also benevolence
  • we see this in every language
  • in Arabic it’s very common, has broad usage in Arabic
  • if you’re speaking to someone older than you, and you want to say “You did this”, the way Arabs would say it respectfully is ‘fa’altum kazha wa kazha” (they will use plural to create a tone of respect)
  • it doesn’t meant legal inheritance in terms of fiqh because that wouldn’t make any sense
  • it uses word more figuratively
  • end conclusion of inheritance – where everything ends up eventually
  • father might tell son “this is all going to be yours one day.”
  • these people fight over control on earth, who has more dominance, money, wealth, influence
  • Allah is saying they’re wasting their time because at the end of the day it belongs to Allah
  • it belongs to Allah now, but at least there is a delusion that “this is mine!”
  • but on Day of Judgment when everything is done, there will be no doubt left that everything belongs to Allah
  • no one is going to stand up on that day and argue
  • surah mumin – when everything is completely done, all souls taken up and not a living soul remains, then Allah will pose that question “Who does kingdom, authority belong to today? “
  • 40:16
  • 40:16
    Sahih International

    The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be concealed from Allah . To whom belongs [all] sovereignty this Day? To Allah , the One, the Prevailing.

  • everyone will have to answer to Allah
  • Bukhari – Prophet saw said not a single person will exist except that Allah will speak to him and hold him accountable. No intermediary between the two of them. The person will look to his right and try to get away, he will see nothing but his own actions blocking him off, and he will look left and will only see his own actions and he will look in front and he will see the fire of hell blazing and burning in front of his face.
  • everybody has to face that day
  • Prophet saw say that that day is coming where the feet of son of Adam will not be able to move from their place until they answer for 4 things : life ,  youth, money, knowledge

wailaynaa yurja’oon – to Us alone will they all be returned

  • there is abnormal sentence structure here
  • usually it’s yurja’oona ilaynaa
  • yurja’oona – passive tense
  • why?
  • [passive]”will they BE returned” not “they will return”
  • the former indicates that they will be compelled to return whether willingly or begrudgingly
  • the latter indicates they are coming of their own accord
  • in Quran, when death comes to people they will ask to be sent back and promise to do good, but they will be told “No way! This is empty talk.”
  • Taubah = to return back
  • “You could have returned back to Allah willingly, you chose not to do that. Now you are being returned to Allah but not in a very good condition.”

Ayat 41

19:41
Sahih International

And mention in the Book [the story of] Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.

  • this is the next passage of the surah
  • we have come across a few small passages
  • from beginning was story of Zakariya a.s. and birth of son Yahya a.s.ayat 1-15
  • then story of Maryam and birth of Isa a.s. ayat 16
  • from ayat 34 to 40 – like conclusion
  • these are 3 subsections that come together to form part 1 of the surah
  • but it doesn’t mean we’re going to be talking about something completely differnt
  • ayat 41 starts part 2 of the surah
  • the first part of surah is an address to the ahlul kitaab
  • they’re being told : you are missing the point here, you already believe in Alah, why is it so difficult to believe that Allah can do this?
  • Yahya was born as miracle and so was Isa, focus on power of Allah
  • it taught us how to make dua, lessons about parenting, how to be a good child, predicament of elderly parents, purity decency, self respect of Maryam, Isa a.s. and how he was, his qualities and how he dealt with people, and how to believe in Allah and prepare for that day that is coming so we have as little remorse as possible
  • the 3rd part of surah will be an address to the mushrikoon(disbelievers) of Makkah, especially the people Prophet saw was having to deal with, it’s a reprimand to those people
  • middle part of surah has 2 primary functions in terms of overall grander scheme
  • as a segue, that it goes from talking about something very specific to ahlul kitaab, to mentioning something that is familiar to the mushrikoon
  • so mention of Ibrahim a.s.
  • he was revered by ahlul kitab and mushrikoon both
  • he serves as that connection, universality of that message is emphasized here
  • at same time, we will see mention of Musa a.s, Harun a.s. Ismail a.s. Idris a.s. Yaqoub a.s. and so it emphasizes that this is the teaching of messengers throughout history
  • from talking about Zakariya a.s., Yahya a.s., Maryam , Isa, it switched to talking about Ibrahim a.s. and this is where it becomes very personal to Prophet saw
  • in surah anbiyaa – story of Ibrahim a.s. being thrown into fire
  • in surah saffat – Ibrahim a.s. being commanded to sacrifice his son
  • in surah Ibrahim – Ibrahim commanded to leave his family in middle of nowhere
  • in surah zhaariyaat – miraculous birth of sons to Ibrahim a.s. at very old age
  • so many specific instances in Quran but this one mentions one specific instance, it mentions how Ibrahim a.s. dealt with a father who didn’t believe, not only that but he was very active, aggressive in his disbelief
  • he is threatening his son Ibrahim : “If you don’t stop this, you’re going to have severe consequences!”
  • that’s a great challenge
  • imagine being a prophet and messenger, you are receiver of divine revelation, your own father doesn’t believe, not only that but he attacks you and your belief
  • imagine how hard that has to be
  • this is as a consolation to Prophet saw
  • surah came in 4-5th year of prophethood, about time when message became public
  • as soon as it went public, opposition started
  • soon after revelation of surah, a group of Muslims migrated to Abyssinia
  • for Bilal it was really tough, but emotionally he didn’t really expect any better from these people, he was an outsider, so when they start persecuting him he’s like “Yeah I figured such”
  • but for Prophet saw, when he is mocked, ridiculed by his own people, it’s different, it’s very personal
  • when he went on the hill and announced the message, the 1st person to speak up was Abu Lahab (paternal uncle, Dad’s actual biological brother)
  • he was someone who had cared for Prophet saw after his parents passed away
  • he used to check on him
  • Abu Lahab said “Tabba lak ya Muhammad!”
  • usually translated as May Your hands perish, but that’s not what it means to the Arabs, it’s a cussing, like cussing him out
  • in public, this is said
  • imagine how difficult this is to overcome
  • and Prophet saw preaching publicly, his uncle would literally walk behind Prophet saw
  • narrations in seerah that mentions that when Prophet saw would walk in public area, Abu Lahab would follow behind and throw stones, saying “Hey ! this is my crazy nephew!”
  • how frustrating to have a stranger do that but how even worse to have your own uncle do this
  • so here, Allah is consoling Prophet saw by mentioning Ibrahim and his father
  • “Oh Muhammad, I see what is going on with you, I know, but don’t worry, you’re not the first person to deal with this situation. Your father Ibrahim dealt with this, I took care of him, I’ll take care of you. Don’t lose your cool. Keep doing what you’re supposed to do. Stay positive.”

Ayat 42

19:42
Sahih International

[Mention] when he said to his father, “O my father, why do you worship that which does not hear and does not see and will not benefit you at all?

wazhkur fil kitaabi ibrahim

  • wazhkur – mention, not just remember
  • it’s a reminder
  • Allah is consoling Prophet saw
  • Oh Muhaammad you’re dealing with some very difficult circumstance but remember Ibrahim, mention him
  • not just story of Ibrahim but specfically that which is mentioning in Quran
  • we have cleansing, filtering through the word fil Kitaab – focus on that aspect of Ibrahim’s life which is mentioned in the Quran because anything else you might find from mushrikoon or ahlul kitab whether true or not, you won’t be able to differentiate
  • it also explains the function of Quran
  • not just to tell story but to help you in your own personal situation
  • there are people even today who took shahaadah but their parents have not, how do they create that balance that these are my folks but this is my belief, especially if the parents are aggressive against my belief
  • sometimes, we have circumstances with young people who have come to the deen but parents have not
  • so how to deal with that?

Innahu – most definitely he was

kaana – he was

  • grammatically this is extra
  • rhetorically speaking it has a purpose
  • for extra emphasis
  • he consistently was, maintains

siddeeqan – comes from root which means truthfulness

  • siddeeq – hyperbolized noun, exagerrated form
  • extremely truthful
  • what does it mean?
  • he never told a lie in his life :- in surah anbiyaa, how people from his town go out for celebration and he says he doesn’t feel too good and he destroys idols etc
  • was he lying then? because he obviously stayed behind to do this
  • there is a clear explanation what he meant what he said there
  • will be discussed later
  • but Allah here is making a clarification that Ibrahim never told a lie in his life

Sideeq

  • someone who is sincere and true not only in his words but also in his actions, synchronize actions and words
  • someone who accepts whatever he is told by Allah with no objections
  • when he was thrown in fire, he was even asked by angel “Do you need any help?”
  • he said, “As far as you’re concerned, no. Allah will help me.”
  • when he was told to leave his family in middle of nowhere, he does
  • when told to sacrifice his son, he’s ready to do it
  • this was someone who anytime he was told something by Allah he was ready to do it
  • Abu bakr had that same quality
  • israa and miraaj when Abu Jahl came to him and mocked Prophet saw about this, Abu bakr said if Muhammad said it, I believe it
  • Nabiyan – a prophet
  • he was also a prophet

Link to video series on MM

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