Tafseer Maryam Day 13 Ayat 34-38

  • this is  a separate passage and serves as a segue between the beginning of the surah and middle of the surah
  • from beginning of surah, first there is the miraculous birth of Yahya a.s. to very very old parents
  • then miraculous birth of Isa a.s. with no father
  • middle part of surah goes to addressing the contemporaries of Prophet saw
  • then it goes to addressing mushrikoon of Makkah and the necessity for them to believe
  • the first part of surah addressed more to the Christians though it addreses both Jews and Christians
  • this passage here today serves not only as conclusion to previous passage but also as a seque, how this is transitioning into now addresing the mushrikooon of Makkah who have a different predicament altogether

Ayat 34

19:34
Sahih International

That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word of truth about which they are in dispute.

  • by Allah saying zhaalika (that) , this is the pointing word that used to point to something that is distant
  • reason why pointing word for far used:
  • it’s saying “that was about Isa a.s., now it’s time to focus on incident that is here now.”
  • Isa a.s. is very distant. He has nothing to do with what these people are saying about him. Allah was telling us the true story about Isa a.s., so now it’s using the far pointing word to say that Isa a.s. is very far and has no connection to what people say about him

qawlal haqq – the saying/speech of the truth [speaking of the truth]

  • it sounds a little awkward but it almost sounds like “This is the truth that is being spoken here”
  • what is this speaking of the truth referring to?
  • there are 2 different recitations: Qawlal haqq and qawlul haqq

qawlul haqq

  • this is a description of Isa a.s. He was result of consequence of true word. We know from Surah Aali Imran that Allah refers to Isa a.s. conception as kalimatin minhu (word from Allah). Allah simply say Be and it is. He comes into existence by qawl al haqq
  • more commonly known recitation of Quran is Qawlal Haqq

qawlal haqq

  • verb that precedes this has been omitted. It’s actually “I am definitely speaking the truth” when verb omitted like this, it’s for exclamation, emphasis. This could be Allah saying  this, or some mufasiroon say this is Isa a.s. saying it. After describing how he came into existence, now what does he himself  say about all that.
  • “everything that has been said to now, that is truth”
  • this is in nasab form
  • reason for why it’s in mansoob :- exclamation point but in terms of praising. It occurs in this particular grammatical format
  • allazhee fiihi yamtaroon – in which yamtaroon
  • yamtaroon comes from miryah

miryah

  • not to simply doubt but to put doubt into something, when people try to make someone else doubtful about something that he knows is true, he has beef with it, then he brings very weak arguments to try to poke holes in a bullet proof truth and he’s got nothing to show for it, this is imtiraa
  • this occurs in mudhaari’ form (present/future tense)
  • it’s still going on now
  • Isa a.s. in general is that one truth that has been twisted, distorted more than anything else
  • Jews simply dismissed him as child of an illegitimate relation and a heretic
  • the Christian deify him

Ayat 35

19:35
Sahih International

It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is.

ma kaana lillah – it is not befitting Allah, it does not suit Allah

  • this is in past tense, for emphasis, ta”keed
  • that this is absolutely completely inappropriate for Allah

anan tafsiriyyah – to explain what it is that so not befitting Allah

  • yattakhizha min waladin subhaanah – that he took from a child (awkward direct translation) -> he had a son
  • min can have many different meanings/effects
  • meaning of “it is not even in the least bit” – even in the least bit, at any level, it is completely inappropriate to say Allah has a son

subhaanah

  • subhaan comes from root word which means to swim but used in Arabic to express Allah being free, above and beyond having any type of fault
  • explanation :
  • al ibtidaa – sometimes word spins off and develops its own meaning
  • there are 2 words for swimming, one is swimming with head underwater and the other is head above water, this is the one where head is above water. just like head is above water, Allah is above imperfection
  • mentioned in books of tafsseer (more of a reflection than linguistic explanation )- swimming is an effort to remain afloat in water. Similarly tasbeeh and glorifying Allah is an effort to stay away from temptations of this world. The second we stop doing that, it would be as if we would stop moving in water and sink and drown
  • this is very hyperbolic form – subh7aan
  • like a proclamation – How absolutely perfect, flawless is HE!
  • this is like a statement in itself
  • this is another example of the rest of the sentence being omitted
  • in English it’s akin to saying “Amazing!!!!!!” or LOL!!!
  • when you omit rest of sentence and leave one word  there in classical Arabic that’s the effect is creates
  • why is it plugged in here? because we just got done talking about how inappropriate it is to say about Allah that He would have a son
  • in surah saffaat – when Allah tells us about the mushrikoon of Makkah made the angels the daughters of Allah, they call the angels the daughters of Allah
  • Allah mentions it to refute it – how inappropriate they would assign some creation of Allah the daughters of Allah
  • but immediately after it Allah says, fasubhaanallahi ‘amm yasSifoon – How above and beyond is Allah compared to what they say
  • this is a pattern within the Quran
  • here He says Subhaanahu – how absolutely perfect is He, He has nothing to do with what these people are talking about
  • now we have an intellectual argument coming:

izha qadha amran – whenever He decrees something any type of an issue

  • fainnama – then all He does
  • innama creates hasr (limitation)

yaqoolu lahu kun fayakun – He says Be and it is

  • if you’re so fascinated,baffled, enchanted by the miraculous conception of Isa a.s. and so blown away by all the miracles Isa a.s. did (speaking while an infant, curing blind and lepers etc), that you said we have no choice but to say He is son of God, then realize that what you need to be focusing on is that this is not power of Isa a.s. on display but this is power of Allah in display
  • like in Aali Imran – example of Isa a.s. in the eye of Allah is like example of Adam a.s.
  • Allah told Adam Be and there he was, and same with Isa a.s. as simple as that
  • if you are following some divine religion, even though distorted, then you obviously grasp the fact that there is a god, a creator and if He is almighty, all creating and sustaining then why can’t you come to term with the fact that yes this man is a miracle but it comes from that god
  • it’s just like the miracle of the sky, tree, yourself
  • sure there is something unique about that particular miracle, but just like when you look at your son and outside, the tree, you say “How amazing is god’s creation?”

Ayat 36

19:36
Sahih International

[Jesus said], “And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path.”

  • this continues to relate to us what Isa a.s. is saying
  • difference of opinion among mufassiroon –
  • ayat 34-35 – Allah speaking, interjecting between Isa’s a.s. speech
  • and others say that those are Isa a.s. still speaking
  • we can take both still

wa innallaah rabbe warabbukum fa’budooh

  • this ayah, even if you don’t speak Arabic you can take it apart and figure out what it is
  • the amazing thing (this is the Quran) is how this is a complete summary of iman, our deen, in this one ayah
  • when we read translation it can get a little peculiar
  • “verily” – and you think what is Verily, I don’t know no verily
  • it means ‘for sho’ – for sure, no doubt
  • “Most definitely Allah is MY Rabb and He is YOUR Rabb as well”
  • what does Rabb mean?
  • it’s one of those words that has many layers to it
  • like how peel onion layer after layer, when you get to the bottom you cry
  • One who maintains, provides, guides, creates
  • He takes from creation to fruition, He doesn’t just create
  • that understanding needs to be there when we say Rabb
  • Isa a.s. is saying He is the one who created not just me but all of us, and then He continue to provide for us, guide us and He is the same one that will help us transition from this life to next life and He will continue to guide us there
  • “I owe my existence, health, physical form, emotions, intelligence to Allah”
  • there is a natural sense of gratitude at that moment that overtakes a person
  • you can’t help but feel grateful
  • if He is your Rabb and you feel a sense of gratitude
  • then what is consequence of that?

fa’budoohu – then worship Him

  • word ibadah comes from same root as ‘abd (slave)
  • reason – when you worship in proper manner with correct intention and focus it is a manifestation of servitude you feel towards Allah
  • I am a slave to Allah – but that person can’t make commitment to stand up and pray before Allah there is a disconnect
  • because if he truly feels that way, he would have no problem doing it
  • that sense of gratitude leads to obedience
  • obedience is a side effect of gratitude
  • an interesting conversation part of an Islamic awareness program
  • a recent revert sister talking about what she had gone through
  • someone asked her about hijab
  • she opened up and said she started wearing it a few weeks ago
  • after becoming Muslim, it was something she couldn’t come to terms with, she was part of discussions which turned into arguments which turned into debates about whether hijab is necessary or not
  • it left her more confused
  • what convinced her to wear hijab was gratitude
  • she went through some personal problems and Allah presented solutions to such problems
  • and so she was overcome with gratitude and thought “Oh Allah You have done so much for me and you continue to do so much for me. I’ll do whatever you want me to do, if it’s hijab then no problem”
  • obedience is a side effect of gratitude

haazha siratu mustaqeem:-

  • we have so much discussion about sirat mustaqeem
  • but here Allah is saying “Here this, right under your nose, the four five words you just read, this is sirat mustaqeem”
  • once you realize how infinitely, eternally grateful you are to Allah, and you come to that realization that you will live your life to please Him, in devotion to Him, that is Deen right there
  • whatever else we may talk about, aqeedah, intellectual argument about something in regards to deen, etc, is supplemental
  • everything else supplements this
  • this is the foundation
  • tragedy is we lack this foundation
  • people who are distant from the deen definitely lack this foundation
  • and even people who are’ more involved’ in deen lack this foundation
  • they are caught in the barb wire on the boundary, and never get to the core, the point
  • that point is the gratitude you feel to Allah and how it compels you to be obedient to Allah and how decide to live your life to please Allah
  • after that no questions asked
  • Oh Allah what do you want me to do I will do

Ayat 37

19:37
Sahih International

Then the factions differed [concerning Jesus] from among them, so woe to those who disbelieved – from the scene of a tremendous Day.

  • we’re talking about Isa a.s.
  • story of Isa a.s. so distorted amongst the people and it led to the distortion of their deen in general
  • fakhtalafa = fa(therefore) + ikhtalafa
  • ikhtilaaf – to differ, but in Quranic language, it means to very strongly differ and disagree with each other
  • al ahzab – plural of hizb
  • hizb – a group of people that are united by some time of a cause, but a group who are very severe/serious in their cause to the point of being severe

min baynihim

  • all these extreme opposition to each other is happening among themselves
  • they didn’t harm anyone else, they only confuse themselves
  • a lot of scholars at this particular junctions bring into discussion the many deviations within the Christian faith
  • in previous ayah Allah says Haazha sirat mustaqeem
  • siraat in classical Arabic has no plural -> indicating a singular united path
  • once you get off that path it’s like off-roading, no shoulder, free for all now, everyone running all over the place, haywire, gone crazy
  • once they get off track then they get out of control
  • they kept spinning off, splitting up so much so that you can’t make heads or tail about where it starts and ends

waylun – an expression in Arabic

  • in translation you see is as “woe be to”
  • in common English it is like “How pathetic, how sad”

lillazheena kafaroo – for the ones who have disbelieved

  • when you say someone is a son of God, that is disbelief
  • this is not some shade of belief, it’s disbelief
  • min mashHadi – from the presence/standing/witnessing

mashHad – can be masdar (‘ing’ version of the word)

  • shuhood, shahida, shahaada – to be present, that the presenting of that day, these people will be presented on that day, they will have to witness that day and how pathetic will their condition be on that day
  • today they say this that , fine but on that day how pathetic will their condition be

mashHad – can be ism Dhzarf -: how pathetic will be the standing position of these people on that day, they will be standing but they wn’t be under rhe shade of Allah but will be under scorching sun, which will be a mile above head, drowning in their sweat, facing hellfire , face melting as the Quran tells us

  • or can refer to time of Day of Judgment
  • or can mean all those things at same time
  • or it can mean how pathetic their condition will be when they will be witnessed against
  • this ummah will testify against such people
  • their own limbs, tongue, skin will testify against these people
  • surah fussilat 41:20
  • 41:20
    Sahih International

    Until, when they reach it, their hearing and their eyes and their skins will testify against them of what they used to do.

  • Isa a.s. about whom they concocted all these lies, he himself will testifty against them on this day
  • al maidah 116-117
  • 5:116
    Sahih International

    And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, ‘Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah ?'” He will say, “Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen.

    5:117
    Sahih International

    I said not to them except what You commanded me – to worship Allah , my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I was among them; but when You took me up, You were the Observer over them, and You are, over all things, Witness.

  • yaumin azdheem – the very great/profound day

Ayat 38

19:38
Sahih International

How [clearly] they will hear and see the Day they come to Us, but the wrongdoers today are in clear error.

asmi’ bihim wa absir – this requires some explanation grammatically speaking

  • both of these are examples of fi’l ta’jub – verb that expresses astonishment/emotion, surprise
  • when we talk about Allah it’s in sense of it’s mocking these people
  • if a human were to say it, “wow, how amazing can they hear now, how amazingly clearly can they see now”
  • but when Allah is saying it, it’s mockery “Wow, you can really hear and see clearly now, right? But what happened in dunya when message came to you? You couldn’t hear or see the truth then?”
  • in Quran, Allah says, – they had eyes but they didn’t see the truth, they had ears, they didn’t listen to the truth
  • but now that they have experienced death and resurrected and standing on Day of Judgment and everything they have been told about is happening in front of their eyes
  • sajdah 32:12
  • 32:12
    Sahih International

    If you could but see when the criminals are hanging their heads before their Lord, [saying], “Our Lord, we have seen and heard, so return us [to the world]; we will work righteousness. Indeed, we are [now] certain.”

  • but too little too late
  • now they’re ready to testify to the truth from the top of their lungs, but Allah says,

yawma ya”toonana – on the day they will come to Us

  • there is a beautiful grammatical flow to this
  • in present/future tense
  • when they will come to us
  • the conversation now brought to the current situation

laakini zdhaaalimoona fi dhalaali mubeen

  • zdhaalimoon – people who have wronged themselves
  • zdhulm – to put something where it doesn’t belong/misappropriate something
  • shirk is zdhulm because it is misappropriating Allah
  • sinning is also a form of dzhulm because you misappropriate the blessings of Allah
  • Allah gave you all of these so you would live and use them in obedience
  • but when they sin and abuse the blessings and say Isa a.s. is son of god, then they are committing zdhulm
  • fi = inside of
  • used as a visual within the Quran, there is imagery built in this
  • when you’re inside something you don’t know what’s going on outside
  • you’re encased, insulated
  • similarly theses people are completely a bubble of misguidance
  • they’re encased, they’ve buried themselves in so much lies that they can’t even see the truth anymore
  • that day they will see very clearly and will see the truth but today they have encased themselves in lies

Ayat 39

19:39
Sahih International

And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and [yet], they are in [a state of] heedlessness, and they do not believe.

  • wa anzhirhum – and warn them
  • this is a command
  • inzhaar – warn
  • when you hear translation in English we get the idea that it’s like scaring someone
  • but nazheer and inzhaar doesn’t mean to scare the living daylights out of someone
  • but in classical Arabic it’s warning someone of impending danger which is a real possibility
  • like someone walking towards a ditch and they’re not aware of it, and you say “Hey! Stop !” that’s inzhaar
  • warn out of love, because you care about them and there is a real imminent danger
  • Yes these people are wrong, but you warn them out of caring for humanity, good of humanity
  • we shouldn’t preach down to people/condemn people “Believe this or go to hell!”
  • that’s not the way our message is structured
  • but it’s done out of affection and sympathy for people

yaumal hasrati – day of regret

  • Day of judgment is called day of severe regret
  • warn them of that day
  • in hadith narrated by Muazh ibn Jabal in Tabarani – Day of Judgment will be called Day of Regret because people who did wrong will regret the choices they made but even the people who go to Jannah will have some level of regrets. They will regret every second they didn’t spend in zhikr of Allah.
  • hadith (in Muslim) a long  hadith that talks about death that will be brought on Day of Judgment in form of a ram, it will be slaughtered and the proclamation will be made “Oh people of Jannah now it’s eternity, no more death, and same to the people of hellfire. After telling this hadith, Prophet saw read this ayah

qudhiyal amr – when the affair will be decided, when all final decision will have been made, people of Jannah have gone to Jannah and people of hell have gone to hell, then this decision will be made, no more death -> no more hope

  • anther hadith tells us about same predicament of theirs :when the ram will be slaughtered, the groups will be looking on and they won’t be able to do anythig
  • surah Zukhruf
  • 43:77
  • 43:77
    Sahih International

    And they will call, “O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!” He will say, “Indeed, you will remain.”

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