Tafseer Surah Yaseen 63-67

Recap:

  • previously we talked about people of Jannah, and in descriptive manner their enjoyment was depicted
  • and then smooth, profound transition to people who have been tried, convicted and sentence by Allah of being criminals in court of Allah
  • disobedient to Allah, taking open enemy shaytaan as their closest path and following the precedents established by shaytaan which is ungrateful, disobedient and defiant
  • now Allah talking about the punishment Allah has decided for these people
  • at this point in time, Allah directly addressing these people
  • in previous passage, Allah also addressing them
  • He goes on addressing them

Ayat 63

36:63
Sahih International
This is the Hellfire which you were promised.
  • hazhaa هَاذَا is for near
  • haazhihi هَاذِهِ is feminine form of same word
  • ‘this is jahannam’ – this implies that jahannam will be right there
  • jahannam is actual given name of fire of hell
  • just like jannah is right there for the obedient, jahannam will be there for the disobedient
  • يَومَ يُعرَضُونَ عَلى النَّار yauma yu’radhoona ala annaar – the day they will be made to stand over the fire
  • imagine a scene of punishment in your heard
  • these ayah very descriptive,a lot of imagery built into these ayah
  • imagine person being held by back of shirt and literally hung over the fire, all that is stopping him from falling in fire is the hand holding hm
  • imagine how scary that is
  • ‘that you were promised’
  • promised in sense that if you keep doing what you’re doing this is how you will end up
  • this is jahannam right here that you were warned about
Ayat 64
36:64
Sahih International
[Enter to] burn therein today for what you used to deny.”
  • إصلَوهَا iSlawhaa = enter it
  • إصلَو iSlaw is the command form from صَلَى salla, the root of this word means to enter into fire
  • a verb that is proprietary to the meaning of ‘to enter into fire’
  • sometimes used in its transitive form
  • تَصلِيَة taSliyah – to enter something into fire
  • used in both, transitive or intransitive; to enter into fire or to enter something into the fire
  • depends on the discourse or dialogue of that particular surah or part of Quran
  • some places Allah telling the criminal themselves, “You need to go and enter into that fire.”
  • either way it’s very profound, heavy what is being said

1st way:

  •  they’re literally being told, you see a fire, you know what happens when you go into the fire, nonetheless, walk into it
  • they’re being made to walk into this fire knowing this fire, not just any fire but jahannam, to walk willingly into it
  • the horror and terror the person will feel
2nd way :
  • Allah is entering something into the fire or telling angel to put someone into the fire
  • shows helplessness of that person, person bound and entered into the fire
  • either way it’s scary
Al yaum اليَوم –
  • has come 3 times before
  • purpose of this word : right here, today, now, not for the future
  • in dunya, whenever these people were warned by messengers, their reactions, “Bring it, where’s the punishment? If you are telling the truth!”
  • they acted this way and today they’re told, “Right here right now, this is not for tomorrow, those messengers used to tell you to watch out for hereafter and you thought it was a big joke. You keep saying bring it, now here it is.”

بِمَا bimaa

  • the letter ba is one of most versatile letters/words in Arabic language
  • used as preposition – harf jar
  • in classical books of grammar, 12-13 different uses for letter ba
  • one of them is ب سَبَبِيَّة ba sababiyyaah – causative ba
  • what comes before it is the result of what comes after it
  • after the ba you have the cause, (how this happened, the reason for this to happen)
  • what is the cause of these people being told to go into the fire? Because of that which you used to belie
كُفر kufr –
  • ungrateful, as result of that ingratitude, then to disbelieve
  • because you were ungrateful and disbelieved in Allah
  • epitome of  disobedience  is disbelief itself
  • because of your ingratitude, disobedience and disbelief, that’s why you’re being told to go into the fire
  • when someone pushed into fire, first reaction “why are you doing this to me? what did I do you?”
  • He gets defensive, scared
  • so they’re being told, “no. No one is pushing you into the fire, you did this yourself, you chose to disbelief
  • it’s not saying بِمَا كَفَرتُم bimaa kafartum

كُنتُم kuntum – adds meaning of something that persisted

  • because of how persistently ungrateful you were, you kept doing what you were doing and this is how things end up
  • this surah has highlighted shukr شُكر
  • ayat of Allah reminds us, in ذِكر zhikr
  • ذِكر zhikr, reminders result in shukr
  • and that manifests itself in form of ibadah
  • opposite of this is true as well
  • when you don’t pay attention to signs, ayat, you never remember,
  • when you’re not reminded, you’re oblivious, unaware, heedless
  • that results in ingratitude
  • that ingratitude manifests itself in form of disobedience

Ayat 65

36:65
Sahih International
That Day, We will seal over their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet will testify about what they used to earn.
  • Allah continues to talk about these people but something changes here
  • of beauty of Quran, linguistic miracle of Quran that Allah changes tense
  • he’s talking to them second person – bima kuntum takfuroon (because of how ungrateful you were)
  • now Allah switches to talking about them, 3rd person
  • Why? punishments have been issued out to them, they’ve been forced and pushed into fire of hell
  • in other places in Quran, when people are put in fire of hell, they’ll continue to dry out from there
  • at end of surah muminoon they’ll cry, they’ll beg
  • 23:64
    Sahih International

    Until when We seize their affluent ones with punishment, at once they are crying [to Allah ] for help.

    23:65
    Sahih International

    Do not cry out today. Indeed, by Us you will not be helped.

  • and it will be told to them – they’ll be shooed away like dogs are shooed away
  • and they’ll be told “Don’t talk to me anymore. You had your chance, now don’t make noise, don’t speak to Me anymore.”
  • 23:108
    Sahih International

    He will say, “Remain despised therein and do not speak to Me.

  • So now Allah turns away from them and talks about them

اليَوم Al Yaum

  •  very visual – Today
  • نَختِمُ عَلى افوَاهِهِم nakhtimu ‘alaa afwaahihim – we’ll seal over their mouths

عَلى ‘alaa – used because when you place a seal on something, similarly their mouths will be completely sealed

  • alyaum is to make you visualize, see it
  • sentence structure and word usage very vivid and graphic

وَتُكَلِّمُنَا ايدِيهِم watukallimuna aydihim – their hands will speak to Us

  • the hands will start to speak, not the mouths, but the hands
  • why? because their mouths will lie
  • in other places in Quran, even between Isa a.s. they’ll try to lie, “No, he’s the one who told us to do this, to worship him.”
  • So they won’t be given this opportunity to lie
  • they had every opportunity to say what they wanted to say
  • look how much they said in beginning of surah
  • “You’re just a bunch of liars.”
    36:15
    Sahih International

    They said, “You are not but human beings like us, and the Most Merciful has not revealed a thing. You are only telling lies.”

  • you’re bring using us bad luck, you’re ruining our situation, we were fine until you crazy people showed up. You’re bad luck.”
  • 36:18
    Sahih International

    They said, “Indeed, we consider you a bad omen. If you do not desist, we will surely stone you, and there will surely touch you, from us, a painful punishment.”

  • they were told to spend that which Allah had given them and they responded, “Should we feed somebody, if Allah wanted them to be fed, he’d have fed them Himself,”
  • 36:47
    Sahih International

    And when it is said to them, “Spend from that which Allah has provided for you,” those who disbelieve say to those who believe, “Should we feed one whom, if Allah had willed, He would have fed? You are not but in clear error.”

  • they said all of this, so today, Allah says, “Not anymore, all the trash, filth you spoke , we gave you the opportunity to say whatever you want to say, you had the opportunity to say something good..”
  • that man from the farthest part f the city, he also said something, “Oh  my people, follow these messengers. Why shouldn’t I worship the One who granted me existence…”
  • you had every opportunity to say what you wanted to say but you made your choice
  • today no one wants to hear your nonsense
  • وَتَشهَدُ ارجُلُهُم watashhadu arjuluhum – their legs will testify
  • literally be witnesses
  • surah fussilat –
  • 41:20
    Sahih International

    Until, when they reach it, their hearing and their eyes and their skins will testify against them of what they used to do.

    41:21
    Sahih International

    And they will say to their skins, “Why have you testified against us?” They will say, “We were made to speak by Allah , who has made everything speak; and He created you the first time, and to Him you are returned.

  • their eyes, ears, skin will testify against them, then they’ll complain “why are you testifying against us?”
  • their sight, hearing, and skin will testify against them but when they argue back they’ll only speak to their skin,
  • reason =  because when punishment afflicted upon them, only the skin will feel it, tha’s why  they speak in plural “we’re in this together, you’re feeling the punishment too”
  • skin will reply, “that Allah who gave everything the ability to speak has given us the ability to speak today…”
  • similarly here their legs will testify against them

بِمَا كَانُو يَكسِبُون because of what they used to do-

  • about that which these people used to do
  • the hands, legs are not making up something
  • why Allah seals mouths and make their hands and legs speak up is because there is no denying that
  • if someone else testifies against them they can always say, “No, he is a liar.”
  • the helplessness of these people again is shown
  • when talking about people of jannah, the sheer luxury, enjoyment and bliss is shown
  • these people feel so helpless, miserable hopeless
  • that’s part of it
  • when they opposed messengers didn’t they cause even emotional distress on the messengers?
  • they hurt the messengers’ feelings
  • look at Muhammad saw, his wife, uncle, son die they mock, make fun of him
  • they said, “discontinued, no sons..” no mercy at all
  • somebody’s child dies, the pain the parent goes through, to make an opportunity and take advantage of that to mock the prophet saw,
  • that’s how ruthless these people were
  • similarly they’re tormented today as well
Ayat 66
36:66
Sahih International
And if We willed, We could have obliterated their eyes, and they would race to [find] the path, and how could they see?
  • طَمس TTams – to rub something out
  • when you write something with pencil and you erase it really hard
  • most of what you wrote down gone, but it left some discoloration on paper and some mark
  • you stained you clothes but it still leaves some type of mark behind
  • طَمس Ttams – when you rub something out but you leave some mark behind
  • if we wished we could have rubbed out their eyes, but something would remain, they would have become disfigured

فَستَبَقُو الصِرَاط fastabaqus Siraat

  • then they would have been running around, stumbling around looking for the path
  • فأنَّا fa anna – Allah speaks of them, not to them
  • انَّا anna – how could they ever
  • how could they ever see anything, their eyes have been completely disfigured
Ayat 67
36:67
Sahih International
And if We willed, We could have deformed them, [paralyzing them] in their places so they would not be able to proceed, nor could they return.
  • if we would have wished we would have just completely wiped these people away
  • مَسخ maskh – completely mutilate, disfigured something, completely removed somebody,destroyed them
  • عَلى مَكَانَتِهِم ‘alaa makaanatihim  where they stayed
  • they wouldn’t have been able to go forward
  • مُضِيََّ mudhiyyan – move on
  • nor could they ever go back
  • if these people became paralyzed, all faculties taken away completely, they’d just sit there like rotten piece sof meat, they wouldn’t be able to go forward or return
  • it’s very graphic, disturbing,
  • this is not a game, this is serious
  • these people are the ones playing with their own conditions, they did this to themselves
  • the mercy of this
  • somebody can say where is mercy in these last 2 ayat?
  • mercy in this – it’s being told to us NOW, it’s not a surprise
  • read it, fix it, you’re being told right now
  • another things scholars point out about these ayah – Allah says ‘if’
  • If we wished, If we willed….but He didn’t
  • people who disobey Allah they get chance after chance, years after years, days after days, they have so many chances to make a change, turn back. do taubah, realize what their purpose in life, what their commitment is
  • but if person continues to ignore people talking sense to them, signs around them
  • first passage talks about how people try to talk sense into them
  • even thought we don’t have technically messengers among us, we still have people carrying the message forward, the message continues
  • second passage talks about Allah, signs of Allah, that are all around us
  • in earth, sky, ocean
  • some place in Quran Allah says ‘even within yourselves you see signs of Allah”
  • but they keep ignoring them
  • افَلَم تَكُونُو تَعقِلُون؟ afalam takuunu ta’qiloon?
  • if this comes to pass, this would have been of their own doing
  • on day of Judgment they will have to face the consequences of their choices
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